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This may be due to all of the factors outlined above: the lack of robust projections of the likely costs of ocean acidification's impacts to humans; the dual nature of ocean acidification, which results from global factors but has varying local effects; and the intangible nature of many of ocean acidification's expected impacts on planetary cycles, synergies with other stressors, and so on.This may also be due to the fact that impacts from ocean acidification have yet to be felt in many locations (Cooley et al., 2015).
Bivalve shellfish, including oysters, clams, and scallops, grow and calcify shells more slowly under ocean acidification (Kroeker et al., 2013), and are more likely to die at the larval stage due to energetic changes caused by ocean acidification (Waldbusser et al., 2013).
The actions can be coupled, completed one at a time, or aligned with other environmental initiatives; this is happening in several locations.
Even though reducing atmospheric CO levels is ultimately the best and most complete solution for ocean acidification (Gattuso et al., 2015), productive actions can still be taken to help marine resource-dependent communities adapt to existing ocean acidification, prepare for possible future impacts, and mitigate acidification and synergistic stressors to decrease ocean acidification (Gattuso et al., 2015).
Industry leaders quickly became activists in speaking out for action on this emerging issue (Kelly et al., 2014; Barton et al., 2015).
The economic and cultural importance of the aquaculture industry forced decision makers to listen and respond. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).